Tag Archives: Westminster

ST STEPHEN’S CHAPEL, WESTMINSTER: Visual and Political Culture 1292-1941 (19 September, 2016)

fig169ST STEPHEN’S CHAPEL, WESTMINSTER: Visual and Political Culture 1292-1941
This major conference will present the results of a three-year project to explore the history of a building at the heart of the political life of the nation for over 700 years.

Keynote speakers include Professor David Carpenter (King’s College, London) & Dr Paul Seaward (History of Parliament)

The conference will showcase the research undertaken by a team of experts on the transformation of St Stephen’s chapel from medieval chapel to the first House of Commons debating chamber, as well as including academics whose research on the chapel directly complements the project’s findings.

There will be a reception at the Society of Antiquaries with a display of art and artefacts relating to the Chapel. A digital model of St Stephen’s and the Commons chamber, incorporating research from the project, will be on show for the first time.
For any queries, contact the project’s administrative assistant, Jonathan Hanley via email.

WHEN: Monday, 19 September 2016 at 09:00 – Tuesday, 20 September 2016 at 17:30 (BST)
WHERE: Palace of Westminster – London SW1A 0AA, United Kingdom

Info and booking details here.

IHR Medieval and Tudor London Seminars, Summer Term 2016


Medieval and Tudor London
Sponsored in memory of Dr Elspeth Veale
Convenors: Professor Caroline M.Barron (RHUL), Professor Vanessa Harding (Birkbeck), Dr Julia Merritt (University of Nottingham).

For enquiries relating to this seminar, or you would like to be added to the mailing list, please contact Vanessa Harding: V.Harding@bbk.ac.uk

The Medieval and Tudor London Seminar runs in the summer term only (April-June). We welcome enquiries and offers of papers at any time

Time: Thursday, 5.15pm (except 23 April: 17:30)

Venue: Wolfson Room NB01, Basement, IHR, North block, Senate House unless otherwise stated

  • 28 April: Working together apart. Maynard Buckwith, William Whittell and the network of London-based wardrobe suppliers to Robert Dudley, earl of Leicester
    (Tracey Wedge)
  • 5 May: Medieval London almshouses (Sarah Lennard-Brown, Birkbeck) Meeting the Monks: visitors to the London Charterhouse 1405 (David Harrap, QMUL)
  • 12 May: Henry Yevele and the Building of London Bridge Chapel (Christopher Wilson, UCL)
  • 19 May: Gogmagog and Corineus: from the West Country to the New Troy, Trojans and Giants on the sea-coast of Totnes (John Clark, Museum of London)
    Gogmagog come(s) to London (Alixe Bovey, Courtauld Institute of Art)
  • 26 May: The pre-Fire church of St Botolph Billingsgate (Stephen Freeth, venue for this lecture is Bedford Room G37, South Block, Senate House)
  • 2 June: Westminster’s wanton wives: whore and their communal ties in early modern England (Olivia Benowitz, Berkeley)
    The lesser-known resident aliens of fifteenth century London and its hinterland (Jessica Lutkin, York)
  • 9 June: Building Henry VII’s Savoy Hospital, 1505-1520 (Charlotte A Stanford, Brigham Young University)
  • 16 June: Murder in St. Paul’s Churchyard, Crime, Sanctuary, and Politics in 1539 (Shannon McSheffrey, Concordia University)
  • 23 June: Gadding and Girding in the early modern Blackfriars (Christopher Highley, Ohio State University)
  • 30 June: Medieval London viewed from the waterfront (Maryanne Kowaleski, Fordham University)


Taking architectural history to the bridge: International Bridges Group inaugural meeting report

The study of architecture largely focuses on the study of buildings: constructions with their most essential function as shelter for the human body. But architectural history can forget that constructions with other functions are also ripe for interpretation of their structure and ideologies. This is what the ambitiously-named International Bridges Group intends to promote for crossings of all kinds, but beginning with a focus upon the medieval. Hence we at MedievalArtResearch.com were invited to their inaugural meeting at Westminster Hall on the banks of the Thames, followed by a day of in-depth (hopefully not literally) investigation of medieval bridges in the Nene and Great Ouse valleys. It as an opportunity to experience the fledgling sub-discipline of gephyrology: a neologism which currently only returns fifty results on Google.

Delegates assembled under the flying buttress of Westminster Hall

As the current writer specialises on ecclesiastical architecture, one thing that emerged in the day in Westminster Hall was how similar working on the English bridge is to studying English parish church. Opening lectures from John Blair and John Chandler established thinking about English bridges is closely linked to unravelling the origins and operation of the English parochial system. Many current bridges can be traced back to the increasing importance of kingdoms in the late eighth century, and the establishment of centres of power. Just like churches, sometimes the opportunity to build a bridge was seized upon by institutions, monastic, parochial or secular to make a powerful architectural statement. Equally, institutions could be less responsible: maintenance neglected and pontage tolls embezzled.


David Harrison addresses delegates

Also like English churches, English bridges are uniquely weird and wonderful in equal measure. John P. Allan showed us, via the Exe bridge at Exeter, how independent masons may have been happy to meet in the middle with rounded and pointed arches; while Peter Cross Rudkin showed the English fondness for soffit ribs under the arches, akin to the complicated mouldings of English churches. The rib may have originally had a functional purpose centring the arch before it was built up: especially important for a rounded arch that cannot support itself. But since the ribs are often spaced wider than the length of the stones on top, it would appear that they have assumed the status of a skeuomorph: a decorative form derived from a practical necessity. Having a bridge that had distinctively bridge-like forms was clearly as essential as its structural practicality.

Jana Gajdošová and the tower of the Charles Bridge, Prague

Jana Gajdošová and the tower of the Charles Bridge, Prague

Just as a church spire provided an opportunity to dominate the sky, a bridge provided a powerful opportunity to assert ideology through these unique architectural semiotics. Susan Irvine used Anglo-Saxon literature to consider the bridge as a liminal space: a meeting point between two places. The potential of using this category of space was explored by Jana Gajdošová and Gerrit Jasper Schenk, both presenting papers on bridges rebuilt after disaster. The Gothic Charles Bridge in Prague, with its enormous bridge-tower and scheme of regal architectural sculpture, Jana showed to be a powerful expression of the megalomaniacal ambition of the Holy Roman Emperor. Gerrit compared the rebuilt Ponte Vecchio to the Florentine Bapistery: a pagan monument to Mars reclaimed for John the Baptist, expressed through inscriptions that speak of the enlightened commune of the city.

The final session brought us to how the established concept of a bridge worked in larger societal concepts: Jacopo Turchetto took us to medieval Anatolia, demonstrating how magnificent Ottoman bridges represented much older meeting places of travelling caravans. Roberta Magnusson and David Harrison both gave rich lectures about the bridge in the frameworks of English urban infrastructure and society that proved vital for enlightened conversation on the group’s trip out the Nene and Great Ouse Valleys the next day.


Great Barford, Bedfordshire

Great Barford (Bedfordshire), c.1428

After an early Sunday-morning start, the first bridge the delegates encountered was Great Barford in Bedfordshire, dated by a major bequest of 1428. Much of the problem of looking at bridges is that, unlike a building, it faces not just the usual climatic elements, but also heavy traffic, perpetually flowing water, and wandering boats. Therefore it is inevitable that they fail and are rebuilt. Great Barford was also slightly spoiled by the 1874 widening – a common solution to the problem of increasing road traffic in the Modern age – here achieved by building out the bridge on the west side with a brick refacing.

Irthlingborough, Northamptonshire

Irthlingborough (Northamptonshire), 13th or 14th century

Many medieval bridges are isolated from the main traffic flow: Irthlingborough now has a rather precarious-looking 1930s concrete Art-Deco bypass running alongside it. But in the Middle Ages it was a main road: therefore it was an inevitable structure unlike the grand statement at Great Barford, and probably with much earlier origins. Ditchford, on the other hand, had no such modern rerouting and was very much in use, with signal lights controlling the two-way traffic not used to a group of architectural historians examining its structure (see featured image). This bridge, made largely of attractively-tinged ironstone, was funded by the two parishes of which it lay on the boundary line: charmingly expressed on the central cutwater by the symbols of churches’ dedicatees, St Peter and St Catherine.

Huntingdon, Huntingdonshire

Huntingdon to Godmanchester bridge, corbel table, c.1300-20

Two major urban bridges finished the trip. The very handsome bridge over the Great Ouse outside Huntingdon, called ‘lately built’ in 1322, reveals at close inspection its English eccentricities: different mouldings, designs and widths for every arch. It has the most attractive feature of a trefoil-arched corbel table, very much confirming the early-fourteenth-century date, which may have marked the place of a bridge chapel. Very few of these survived the Reformation: Wakefield, Rotherham, Bradford-upon-Avon and St Ives being the exception. However, we found the chapel over the Great Ouse locked, but had plenty to admire in the St Ives bridge itself: built in the 1420s at the behest of some generous Benedictines.

St Ives, Huntingdonshire

St Ives bridge and chapel, 1420s

While very rich and informative, this meeting established only mere stepping stones to the establishment of gephyrology as an active discipline. If you are a budding gephyrologist, especially of the medieval period (or at least, initially, hanging around with a bunch of medievalists) and would be interested in attending future meetings of this research group, then email Jana Gajdošová with your name, institutional affiliation and a brief description of your studies.

For the full resumé of pictures of the day (including cheeky opportunistic solo church visits) see the Flickr set.